Practical Navigation for the Modern Boat Owner, Nawigacja morska

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Practical Navigation for
the Modern Boat Owner
PAT MANLEY
Copyright © 2008
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester,
West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England
44) 1243 779777
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Manley, Pat.
Practical navigation for the modern boat owner / Pat Manley.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-470-51613-3 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Navigation–Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Global Positioning
System–Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title.
VK555.M2672008
623.89–dc22
2008003730
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN-13: 978-0-470-51613-3 (HB)
Typeset in 10/12 Futura by Thomson Digital, Noida, India
Printed and bound in Italy by Printer Trento, Trento
Contents
Contents
Cover Points
xi
Foreword
xiii
Introduction
xv
1 The Global Positioning System
1
How Your GPS Receiver Tells You Which Satellites It Can See
2
How GPS Works
3
Accuracy of the Fix
4
GPS Blackout
5
Deliberate Interference
5
GPS Is Line of Sight
5
Selective Availability
6
Differential GPS
6
Wide Area Augmentation Service
6
Switch-On Delays
7
Measurement of Speed
8
Measurement of Course
8
Measurement of Heading
9
Errors in COG and SOG
9
2 Our Address on the Earth’s Surface
11
The Equator
12
Latitude
12
v
Greenwich Meridian
12
Longitude
12
Our Address
13
International Date Line
13
Measurement of Latitude and Longitude
13
Distance and Direction
14
Direction
16
The Flat Earth
19
The Spherical Earth and ‘Map Data’
20
Chart Errors
22
Chart Scale
24
Measuring Latitude and Longitude
25
Chart Symbols
26
3 The Magnetic Compass
29
The Earth’s Magnetic Field
30
Steering Compasses
30
Compass Deviation
31
Compass Correction
31
DIY Compass ‘Swing’
31
Fluxgate Compasses
33
4 Constructing a Route
35
Using Second-Hand Waypoints
36
Loading the Route into the GPS
38
Constructing a Route on an Electronic Chartplotter or PC
38
5 Tides
39
Tidal Heights
39
Tidal Flow
50
Finding the Value of the Tidal Flow
52
6 Boat Speed
57
Speed over the Ground
57
Speed Through the Water
58
Measuring Speed Through the Water
58
Log Errors
58
vi
Contents
7 Depth Sounders
61
How They Work
62
Depth Units
62
Calibration
62
Depth Alarms
63
False Echoes
63
Fishfi nders
63
8 Finding Position
65
GPS
65
Other Methods
66
Position Lines
67
Fixing Your Position Using Position Lines
69
Errors in Position Lines
70
How Far Can You See?
71
When All Else Fails
72
Chartplotters
73
9 Passage Planning
77
Overview
78
Detailed Plan
79
Just Prior to Departure
80
Passage Planning – Procedure
81
Preplan
81
For the Planned Day of Departure
81
Passage Making
81
Passage Grid
86
Approach ‘Spider’s Web’
86
Compass Rose as a Waypoint
87
Unmarked Danger as a Waypoint
88
Clearing Bearing
88
10 Pilotage
89
Who Does the Piloting?
90
Means of Pilotage
90
International System of Buoyage
90
vii
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