Przeniesienie napedu w BMW E39(1), Auto warsztat, Materiały szkoleniowe, BMW, e39

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Table of Contents
Transmission Fundamentals
Subject
Page
Standard/Automatic Transmission Comparison ............................... 3
Hydraulic Transmission vs. Electro-Hydraulic Transmission .......... 4
Transmission Identification ................................................................. 5
Transmission Hydraulics ..................................................................... 6
Transmission Fluid Application ---------------------------------------- 7
Torque Converter ................................................................................. 8
Torque Converter Clutch .................................................................... 10
Transmission Oil Pump ........................................................................12
Crescent Type Pump ........................................................................... 12
Vane Type Pump ................................................................................. 13
Hydraulic Control Components ......................................................... 14
Electro-Hydraulic Valve Body ............................................................... 14
Shift Valves .......................................................................................... 15
Pressure Regulation ............................................................................ 16
Apply Components .............................................................................. 18
Multi-Plate Clutches and Brakes ........................................................... 18
Band Brakes ..........................................................................................20
One-Way Clutches ................................................................................ 21
Planetary Gear Set ............................................................................... 22
Compound Planetary Gear Sets ......................................................... 23
Simpson Gear Set .................................................................................. 23
Ravigneaux Gear Set ...............................................................................24
Wilson Gear Set .......................................................................................25
Lepeletier Gear Set ..................................................................................26
Planetary Gear Set Operation ..............................................................27
Shift Control ..........................................................................................34
Transmission Control Module ............................................................. 38
Review Questions .................................................................................39
Initial Print Date:1/15/03
Revision Date:
Model: All with BMW Automatic Transmission
Production: All
Objectives:
After completion of this module you will be able to:
• Recognize automatic transmission advantages.
• Identify BMW Automatic Transmissions.
• Understand Basic Transmission Hydraulics.
• Understand Transmission Fluid Application.
• Understand the Operation of Multi Plate Clutches and Brakes.
• Understand Torque Converter Operation.
• Understand Basic Planetary Gear Sets and Basic Power Flow.
Transmission Fundamentals
Standard/Automatic Transmission Comparison
In today's modern vehicles, the automatic transmission has become a vital part of the pow-
ertrain. Automatic transmissions provide overall better fuel economy and efficiency while
adapting to changing road conditions and driving habits. Standard transmissions offer
more driver interaction with the vehicle, however automatic transmissions reduce driver
fatigue and increase safety by shifting automatically. Automatic transmissions also offer
improved driveability in stop and go traffic. If there is a disadvantage to an automatic trans-
mission, it would be complexity and cost of manufacturing.
Standard Transmission
Automatic Transmission
• Drive torque must be interrupted
to change gears.
• Gear teeth are in constant mesh
due to planetary design.
• Higher loads on driveline from
abrupt clutch application.
• Smoother application of drive
torque reduces loads on driveline.
• Clutch must be disengaged when
vehicle is stopped to prevent
stalling.
• Due to fluid coupling in the torque
converter, transmission can stay in
gear when vehicle is stopped.
• High radial loads on housing.
• Minimal radial loads on housing.
• Gear set design requires more
space than planetary type.
• Compact design of gear set. Space
requirement is minimized.
• Requires some Maintenance
(clutch).
• Maintenance free operation.
(Lifetime fluid and no clutch).
• Requires driver intervention for
shifting.
• Automatic shifting reduces driver
fatigue and increases safety.
3
Transmission Fundamentals
 Hydraulic Transmission vs. Electro-hydraulic Transmission
Since the introduction of the automatic transmission there have been numerous refine-
ments to improve shift comfort as well as fuel economy. Early automatic transmissions
used only hydraulic control, there was no electronic intervention. In 1986 BMW introduced
their first EH (Electro-Hydraulic) transmission into production vehicles.
The acronym EGS is used by BMW for its electronic transmission control system. EGS
stands for “Electronic Transmission Control” which comes from the German words

E
lektronisch
G
etriebe
S
teurung”. In order to comply with SAE terminology we will refer
to the EGS control module as the TCM “
T
ransmission
C
ontrol
M
odule”.
EH controlled transmissions allow for optimized shift points by closely monitoring changing
conditions. Engine speed, road speed and throttle angle are some of the inputs that are
monitored by the TCM to determine optimal shift points. The TCM will then process this
information and control shift point via electronic solenoids mounted on the valve body.
With the introduction of Adaptive Transmission Control, shift comfort and fuel economy was
further improved. The TCM now monitors throttle angle deviations, wheel speeds and CAN
Bus information to fine tune shift points.
Transmission Fundamentals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Transmission Identification
BMW automatic transmission are manufactured by two suppliers for the US market:

Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen:
Commonly referred to as ZF. ZF manufactures
both manual and automatic transmissions.

GM Powertrain - Hydramatic:
Hydramatic is a manufacturing division of General
Motors located in Strasbourg France. Hydramatic supplies automatic transmissions
to BMW for four and six-cylinder vehicles.
BMW has developed an internal numbering system for their transmissions for parts order-
ing, information research and identification. Also each manufacturer uses their own inter-
nal identification system. Here is a breakdown of these identification codes:
BMW Identification Code Breakdown
A5S 440Z
A = Automatic
S= Standard
Number of Gears
Overdrive Ratio
S = Top Gear Overdrive
D = Top Gear Direct Drive
Maximum Input Torque Rating in Nm.
Manufacturer
Z = ZF
R = Hydramatic
G = Getrag
ZF Identification Code Breakdown
5HP 24
Number of Gears
HP = Hydraulic Planetary
(automatic)
Internal ZF Designation
Hydramatic Transmissions have internal designations as well, however there are not used
often.
5
Transmission Fundamentals
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